Characteristics of Statistics
Statistics is the numerical expression of data. This data is interrelated. As numerical statement of facts, characteristics of statistics is presented as follows:
1. Statistics is aggregate of facts. This means that a single or isolated fact, cannot be called as statistics. Thought it is numerically stated. Statistics deals with groups, but not individual items.
2. Statistics is affected by multiple causes. Statistical facts and figures are affected to the extent by various causes. as for example, good results depend on regular study, timeliness etc.
3. Statistics must be numerically expressed. Statistical methods are numerical statements of facts (expressed in number) of quantitative data. Qualitative expressions such as beauty, health, intelligence is not statistic unless a numerical equivalent is assigned to each expression.
4. Statistics should be collected with reasonable standard of accuracy. A reasonable standard should be maintained duly in collecting, classifying, presenting, organizing and interpreting data. For instance, if the weights of students are being measured, fractions of kilogram (say 1/10th or 1/20th) can be ignored.
5. Statistics should be predetermined purpose. The purpose of collecting statistical data should be predetermined, well defined and specific. So that it helps in attaining expected outcome. In the absence of a predetermined purpose, the data will have to go to the waste paper basket.
6. Statistics should be comparable in relation to each other. Statistical data are mostly collected for the purpose of comparison. In order to make valid comparison, the data should be same characteristics. So that they can relate to the same matter or subject.